Document Type


Publication Date



Portugal, France, Citizenship, Racism, Minorities

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


The quality of contemporary democracies hinges on the breadth and depth of the citizenship regimes on which democracy ultimately rests. This article argues that, to assess citizenship, two important dimensions are of crucial interest, namely to what extent formal citizens are able to live and practice substantive citizenship roles and, secondly, how access to citizenship rights is used by different societal groups in order to defend privilege. Having conducted a comparative case study of Portugal and France, I now argue that political elites are contributing to a framing of non-whites as foreigners and immigrants because it serves their purpose and that of the majority of their electorate. I also demonstrate how academia contributes to this framing, as many scholars seem unable to free themselves from biased academic traditions, some of which are clearly racist.


This is a preliminary version of the article published in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

The author of this article would like to provide 50 free downloads of the article as it appears in the journal. Please click the link below:

Was this content written or created while at USF?


Citation / Publisher Attribution

Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, v. 38, issue 7, p. 1067-1084.