The Long Valley volcanic region is an active volcanic area situated at the eastern base of the Sierra Nevada escarpment and dominated by a 32 km wide resurgent caldera created ~760 ka. Eruptions after 180 ka have been localized at Mammoth Mountain on the western rim of the caldera and along the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain stretching about 45 km northward. Three different probability models have been developed and then combined in a logic tree to estimate the long-term spatial probability of vent opening. These models include (i) an anisotropic kernel density estimator based on past vent locations, (ii) a new Bayesian model for coupling new vents with pre-existing faults, and (iii) a uniformly distributed probability map. The model combination procedure relies on Bayesian model averaging. This doubly stochastic framework enables us to incorporate some of the main sources of epistemic uncertainty about the interpretation of the volcanic system, thereby exploring their effect. Our vent-opening probability maps show two higher likelihood regions for new vent opening, one around Mammoth Mountain to the south, and the other along the Mono-Inyo Craters to the north. The spatial vent opening probability, conditional on an eruption, is estimated as ~64% in the northern region and ~36% in the southern region, with an uncertainty of about ±20%. These findings provide a rational basis for the hazard mapping of a potential eruption in the Long Valley volcanic region, suggesting that the hazard associated with Mammoth Mountain volcanism should be fully evaluated.



TableS1.xlsx (17 kB)
Table of eruption record

TableS2.xlsx (17 kB)
Table of eruption record, modified