Service with a Smile: How Gender and Autonomy Moderate the Emotional Labor Process
emotional labor; emotional intelligence; gender; autonomy; employee well-being; customer service organizations
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomywere significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal outcomes of emotionalexhaustion, affective well-being, and job satisfaction. Females were more likely to experience negative consequences when engaging in surface acting. Autonomy served to alleviate negative outcomes for individuals who used emotional labor strategies often. Contrary to our hypotheses, emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between the emotional labor strategies and personal outcomes. Results demonstrated how the emotional labor process can influence employee well-being.
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Citation / Publisher Attribution
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, v. 12, issue 4, p. 319-333
Scholar Commons Citation
Johnson, Hazel-Anne M. and Spector, Paul E., "Service with a Smile: How Gender and Autonomy Moderate the Emotional Labor Process" (2007). Psychology Faculty Publications. 713.