Openness to Experience: Its Lower Level Structure, Measurement, and Cross-Cultural Equivalence
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Openness to Experience is an important but relatively poorly understood personality construct. Advances in openness research require further construct clarification as well as establishment of a common framework for conceptualizing and measuring the lower level structure of the construct. In this article, we present data from 3 studies to address this research need. In Study 1, we identify 6 facets of Openness to Experience—intellectual efficiency, ingenuity, curiosity, aesthetics, tolerance, and depth—based on a factor analysis of 36 existing Openness-related scales. In Study 2, we present further validity evidence for the 6-facet structure based on a newly developed measure of Openness. Data from this study also suggest the presence of 2 intermediate-level factors (i.e., aspects) of Openness: intellect and culture. In Study 3, we present a short form of the newly developed measure, retaining items that showed the highest internal consistency and measurement invariance across 3 samples: U.S. undergraduates, Chinese MBA students, and Chinese undergraduates. Together these 3 studies offer a more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted nature of the Openness construct.
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Citation / Publisher Attribution
Journal of Personality Assessment, v. 96, issue 1, p. 29-45
Scholar Commons Citation
Woo, Sang E.; Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Longley, Andrew; Zhang, Zhi-Xue; Chie, Chi-Yue; and Stark, Stephen, "Openness to Experience: Its Lower Level Structure, Measurement, and Cross-Cultural Equivalence" (2014). Psychology Faculty Publications. 1946.