Using Spacing to Enhance Diverse Forms of Learning: Review of Recent Research and Implications for Instruction
Memory, Distributed practice, Spacing effect
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Every day, students and instructors are faced with the decision of when to study information. The timing of study, and how it affects memory retention, has been explored for many years in research on human learning. This research has shown that performance on final tests of learning is improved if multiple study sessions are separated—i.e., “spaced” apart—in time rather than massed in immediate succession. In this article, we review research findings of the types of learning that benefit from spaced study, demonstrations of these benefits in educational settings, and recent research on the time intervals during which spaced study should occur in order to maximize memory retention. We conclude with a list of recommendations on how spacing might be incorporated into everyday instruction.
Was this content written or created while at USF?
Citation / Publisher Attribution
Educational Psychology Review, vol. 24, issue 3, p. 369-378
Scholar Commons Citation
Carpenter, Shana K.; Cepeda, Nicholas J.; Rohrer, Doug; Kang, Sean K.; and Pashler, Harold, "Using Spacing to Enhance Diverse Forms of Learning: Review of Recent Research and Implications for Instruction" (2012). Psychology Faculty Publications. 1756.