Temperature, Sea surface temperature, Currents, Ekman, Wind
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
The relationships between tropical Atlantic Ocean surface currents and horizontal (mass) divergence, sea surface temperature (SST), and winds on monthly-to-annual time scales are described for the time period from 1993 through 2003. Surface horizontal mass divergence (upwelling) is calculated using surface currents estimated from satellite sea surface height, surface vector wind, and SST data with a quasi-linear, steady-state model. Geostrophic and Ekman dynamical contributions are considered. The satellite-derived surface currents match climatological drifter and ship-drift currents well, and divergence patterns are consistent with the annual north–south movement of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and equatorial cold tongue evolution. While the zonal velocity component is strongest, the meridional velocity component controls divergence along the equator and to the north beneath the ITCZ. Zonal velocity divergence is weaker but nonnegligible. Along the equator, a strong divergence (upwelling) season in the central/eastern equatorial Atlantic peaks in May while equatorial SST is cooling within the cold tongue. In addition, a secondary weaker and shorter equatorial divergence occurs in November also coincident with a slight SST cooling. The vertical transport at 30-m depth, averaged across the equatorial Atlantic Ocean between 2°S and 2°N for the record length, is 15(±6) × 106 m3 s−1. Results are consistent with what is known about equatorial upwelling and cold tongue evolution and establish a new method for observing the tropical upper ocean relative to geostrophic and Ekman dynamics at spatial and temporal coverage characteristic of satellite-based observations.
Was this content written or created while at USF?
Citation / Publisher Attribution
Journal of Physical Oceanography, v. 37, issue 5, p. 1357-1375
© Copyright 2007 American Meteorological Society (AMS). Permission to use figures, tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. All AMS journals and monograph publications are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (http://www.copyright.com). Questions about permission to use materials for which AMS holds the copyright can also be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org. Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement, available on the AMS website (http://www.ametsoc.org/CopyrightInformation).
Scholar Commons Citation
Helber, Robert W.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Bonjean, Fabrice; Johnson, Eric S.; and Lagerloef, Gary S., "Satellite-Derived Surface Current Divergence in Relation to Tropical Atlantic SST and Wind" (2007). Marine Science Faculty Publications. 152.