Cyber operations can be very complex, and it is useful to conceptualize a deeper, fourth technical level of warfare in order to conduct effective planning. The technical details associated with cyberspace operations are not grasped as intuitively by planners and commanders as are the capabilities and limitations of tanks, ships, and aircraft. The complex and dynamic nature of cyberspace often drives technical analysis and planning to a level beyond those planning practices and procedures accommodated by traditional Joint doctrine.
Barber, Don E.; Bobo, T. Alan; and Sturm, Kevin P.
"Cyberspace Operations Planning: Operating a Technical Military Force beyond the Kinetic Domains,"
Military Cyber Affairs: Vol. 1
, Article 3.
Available at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/mca/vol1/iss1/3