There is a growing public transport crisis in India, with a tremendous increase in the number of private vehicles. Many public bus corporations are operating with net financial losses and rely on government subsidies to keep operations going; therefore, investment in new buses and technology upgrades is rare. Of the various expenditures that bus corporations incur, fuel costs account for 30 percent. There is a strong need to improve fuel efficiency of buses to not only improve the financial viability of the bus companies but also to reduce their environmental and related health impacts. This study analyzes data on more than 500 buses from 3 leading bus corporations in India and identifies measures that can be implemented to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions.