This research explores the historic cultural backgrounds of landscape perceptions in England, France, Germany, and Hungary, which use the words landscape, paysage, Landschaft, and táj, respectively. The German and Hungarian landscape words can be traced back to the early 19th century landscape perceptions of the counter-Enlightenment and the national Romanticism. The English and French landscape words focus on the visual-aesthetic experience of nature and correlate with the late 18th, early 19th century interpretations of landscape as a symbol of the liberal British state and the democratic French state.
Drexler, Dóra. "Landscape, Paysage, Landschaft, Táj: The Cultural Background of Landscape Perceptions in England, France, Germany, and Hungary." Journal of Ecological Anthropology 16, no. 1 (2013): 85-96.
Available at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/jea/vol16/iss1/7