The Bribri have a multifaceted agricultural system relatively high in agrobiodiversity in one of the most biodiverse regions on earth, the forests of Southern Costa Rica. Their agriculture and resource use patterns appear to have evolved over many centuries, informed by traditional ecological knowledge and cultural beliefs about the natural world. Tracing the history of Bribri agriculture from the oldest available documents from the first European contact offers evidence of centuries of crop cultivation, while review of the past century’s records shows socio-economic and natural shocks as key drivers of agricultural change rather than population growth or market pressures. Bribri agricultural systems and practices today have changed in order to adapt yet still rely on traditional ecological knowledge and reflect various cultural beliefs relating to environmental stewardship, resource use, and appreciation of species diversity.