Bubble trails are subaqueous features in carbonate caves, which are made by the corrosion of ascending carbon dioxide bubbles. Folia are calcite deposits resembling inverted rimstone dams in saturated pools. Based on morphological studies in Adaouste Cave (Provence, France) and on studies elsewhere in the world, we propose a new genetic model for folia, close to the model of Green (1991). The association of bubble trails and folia, occurring on overhanging walls, is interpreted to be an indicator of hypogenic degassing occurring just below the water table. The association is the result of juxtaposed processes composed of corrosion along bubble trails and calcite deposition in calcite-saturated pools.
Audra, Philippe; Ludovic Mocochain; Jean-Yves Bigot; and Jean-Claude Nobécourt.
The association between bubble trails and folia: a morphological and sedimentary indicator of hypogenic speleogenesis by degassing, example from Adaouste Cave (Provence, France).
International Journal of Speleology,
Available at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/ijs/vol38/iss2/1