The examination of pollen and charcoal from the Gutâiului Mountains in northwestern Romania and the archaeological evidence from surroundings provides some information on how past human activities have changed the vegetation in this region. The first evidence of potential human influence upon the woodlands is manifested by fire clearance recorded at approximately 7900 cal. yr BP coinciding with the Early Neolithic. The charcoal peaks at ca. 5750, 3300, 2700, 1500, 1000 cal. yr BP, and during the last 300 years are associated with episodes of decline of main woodland constituents (Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus, and Corylus), and the expansion of fire-precursors (Betula, Alnus, and Corylus), and of herb species that indicate an anthropogenic disturbance. The small openings created within the woodlands were probably used as grazing areas. The first signs of agriculture appear at ca. 1500 cal. yr BP. Only during the last 300 years does pollen of the cereals e.g. Secale, Hordeum-group, Poaceae >40 μm, suggest the spread of arable field in the lowlands (Oaş Depression), but not in the proximity of the study basins.
Feurdean, Angelica and Astalos, Ciprian
The impact of human activities in the Gutaiului Mountains, Romania,
Studia UBB Geologia
Available at: https://scholarcommons.usf.edu/geologia/vol50/iss1/art7