Coastline and Landscape Changes in Bay Areas Caused by Human Activities: A Comparative Analysis of Xiangshan Bay, China and Tampa Bay, USA

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bay coastline, bay landscape, coastline and landscape change, human activities, Xiangshan Bay, Tampa Bay

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Using multitemporal Landsat TM/OLI images at a 10-year interval, in this study, we (1) extracted information of spatial location, length, and sinuosity of coastline and landscape configuration, diversity and fragmentation in the bay areas of Xiangshan Bay (XB), China and Tampa Bay (TB), USA from 1985 to 2015; (2) constructed indices of artificial coastlines and human disturbance on bay area landscapes; and (3) explored and discussed the impacts of human activities on changes of coastlines and landscape types in the two bay areas. Our analysis results demonstrate the following five points. (1) During the past 30 years, the lengths of natural coastline in XB and TB shrank, while the lengths of their artificial coastline increased first and then maintained stable. Since there were different influences of human activities on coastlines and landscape types between the two bay areas, XB experienced dramatic changes in parts of coastline geomorphologies and continuous decrease of coastline sinuosity, while, in TB, there was a little change in coastline geomorphologies and its coastline sinuosity was almost unchanged. (2) The intensity of human activities in XB was continuously enhanced from 1985 to 1995, and then the degree of enhancement had slowed down after 1995. However, in the time period, the impacted extent of human activities gradually increased and finally covered almost entire coastlines in XB. In TB area, although the intensity of human activities was enhanced, the degree of enhancement slowed down from 1985 to 2015 and the impacted areas of human activates were concentrated in several coastal city areas. (3) The average area of landscape patches strongly disturbed by human activities in both XB and TB generally showed a trend of decreasing from 1985 to 2005. However, during the period of 2005 to 2015, the average patch area of landscapes disturbed by different degrees of human activities in XB changed differently, while in TB it almost did not change. (4) From 1985 to 2005, the indices of landscape diversity in various areas of human disturbance in XB gradually increased, while in TB, changes in indices of the landscape diversity varied. From 2005 to 2015, the changes in the intensity of human disturbance in both bay areas were from weak to strong, whereas the indices of landscape diversity in XB and TB increased first and then decreased. (5) The landscape fragmentation index in different human disturbance areas in both XB and TB gradually increased from 1985 to 2005, while from 2005 to 2015, in both bay areas, the landscape fragmentation index presented a decreasing trend.

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Journal of Geographic Sciences, v. 28, issue 8, p. 1127-1151