Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Degree Granting Department
Richard D. Gitlin, Sc.D.
Nasir Ghani, Ph.D.
Ismail Uysal, Ph.D.
Srinivas Katkoori, Ph.D.
Gabriel Arrobo, Ph.D.
Recurrent Neural Network, Coordinated Multipoint Transmission, Successive Interference Cancellation, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access Schemes
In the first part of this dissertation, a novel medium access protocol for the Internet of Thing (IoT) networks is introduced. The Internet of things (IoT), which is the network of physical devices embedded with sensors, actuators, and connectivity, is being accelerated into the mainstream by the emergence of 5G wireless networking. This work presents an uncoordinated non-orthogonal random-access protocol, which is an enhancement to the recently introduced slotted ALOHA- NOMA (SAN) protocol that provides high throughput, while being matched to the low complexity requirements and the sporadic traffic pattern of IoT devices. Under ideal conditions it has been shown that slotted ALOHA-NOMA (SAN), using power- domain orthogonality, can significantly increase the throughput using SIC (Successive Interference Cancellation) to enable correct reception of multiple simultaneous transmitted signals. For this ideal performance, the enhanced SAN receiver adaptively learns the number of active devices (which is not known a priori) using a form of multi-hypothesis testing. For small numbers of simultaneous transmissions, it is shown that there can be substantial throughput gain of 5.5 dB relative to slotted ALOHA (SA) for 0.07 probability of transmission and up to 3 active transmitters.
As a further enhancement to SAN protocol, the SAN with beamforming (BF-SAN) protocol was proposed. The BF-SAN protocol uses beamforming to significantly improve the throughput to 1.31 compared with 0.36 in conventional slotted ALOHA when 6 active IoT devices can be successfully separated using 2×2 MIMO and a SIC (Successive Interference Cancellation) receiver with 3 optimum power levels. The simulation results further show that the proposed protocol achieves higher throughput than SAN with a lower average channel access delay.
In the second part of this dissertation a novel Machine Learning (ML) approach was applied for proactive mobility management in 5G Virtual Cell (VC) wireless networks. Providing seamless mobility and a uniform user experience, independent of location, is an important challenge for 5G wireless networks. The combination of Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) networks and Virtual- Cells (VCs) are expected to play an important role in achieving high throughput independent of the mobile’s location by mitigating inter-cell interference and enhancing the cell-edge user throughput. User- specific VCs will distinguish the physical cell from a broader area where the user can roam without the need for handoff, and may communicate with any Base Station (BS) in the VC area. However, this requires rapid decision making for the formation of VCs. In this work, a novel algorithm based on a form of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) called Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) is used for predicting the triggering condition for forming VCs via enabling Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) transmission. Simulation results show that based on the sequences of Received Signal Strength (RSS) values of different mobile nodes used for training the RNN, the future RSS values from the closest three BSs can be accurately predicted using GRU, which is then used for making proactive decisions on enabling CoMP transmission and forming VCs.
Finally, the work in the last part of this dissertation was directed towards applying Bayesian games for cell selection / user association in 5G Heterogenous networks to achieve the 5G goal of low latency communication. Expanding the cellular ecosystem to support an immense number of connected devices and creating a platform that accommodates a wide range of emerging services of different traffic types and Quality of Service (QoS) metrics are among the 5G’s headline features. One of the key 5G performance metrics is ultra-low latency to enable new delay-sensitive use cases. Some network architectural amendments are proposed to achieve the 5G ultra-low latency objective. With these paradigm shifts in system architecture, it is of cardinal importance to rethink the cell selection / user association process to achieve substantial improvement in system performance over conventional maximum signal-to- interference plus noise ratio (Max-SINR) and Cell Range Expansion (CRE) algorithms employed in Long Term Evolution- Advanced (LTE- Advanced). In this work, a novel Bayesian cell selection / user association algorithm, incorporating the access nodes capabilities and the user equipment (UE) traffic type, is proposed in order to maximize the probability of proper association and consequently enhance the system performance in terms of achieved latency. Simulation results show that Bayesian game approach attains the 5G low end-to-end latency target with a probability exceeding 80%.
Scholar Commons Citation
Elkourdi, Mohamed, "Machine Learning, Game Theory Algorithms, and Medium Access Protocols for 5G and Internet-of-Thing (IoT) Networks" (2019). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.