Degree Granting Department
Acinetobacter baumannii, antimicrobial, leishmaniasis, malaria, Staphylococcus aureus, Structure-Activity Relationship
Thirty-three 1,4-dihydropyridine diastereomeric pairs were synthesized and the structure-activity relationship studied in a Plasmodium falciparum in vitro model. Twenty-nine of these derivatives contained a 6-position oxygen, with 2.31, 2.32, 2.52 and 2.53 having single and double digit nanomolar activities. This SAR study revealed some insightful information about the 1,4-dihydropyridine substitution pattern. Substitution at the 7-position other than 3,4-dimethoxy severely reduced the activity. 4-phenyl substitution with 2- or 4- halo or methyl formed active compounds while substitution at the 3-position or with methoxy or conjugated aryl systems resulted in inactive compounds. The 2-position was found to majorly affect the activity, with groups larger than methyl being the most active. The other four derivatives contained a 6-position methylene, with 2.1, 2.59 and 2.60 having single nanomolar activities. Lastly, stereochemistry was revealed to play an important role in the activity of 2.1. One stereoisomer, (+)-trans-2.1, had subnanomolar activity in two assays. Another stereoisomer, (4S,7S)-2.1, had nanomolar activity. The other two stereoisomers were inactive.
A series of N2,N4-disubstituted quinazoline-2,4-diamines has been synthesized and tested against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. A structure-activity and structure-property relationship study was conducted in part using the Topliss operational scheme to identify new lead compounds. This study led to the identification of quinazolines with EC50s in the single digit micromolar or high nanomolar range in addition to favorable physicochemical properties. Quinazoline 3.23 also displayed efficacy in a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis, reducing liver parasitemia by 37% when given by the intraperitoneal route at 15 mg/kg/day for five consecutive days. Their antileishmanial efficacy, ease of synthesis, and favorable physicochemical properties make the N2,N4-disubstituted quinazoline-2,4-diamine compound series a suitable platform for future development of antileishmanial agents.
A similar series of N2,N4-disubstituted quinazoline-2,4-diamines has been synthesized and tested against methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multi-drug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Quinazolines with MICs in the single digit micromolar or high nanomolar range were identified via SAR. In a murine model of MRSA infection, 1x the MIC for quinazoline 4.47 allowed for the survival of all tested mice at the end of a one week study. An in vivo model of A. baumannii was also undertaken using a Galleria mellonella model of infection. Quinazolines 4.74-4.76 afforded an increased protection of 87.5% when compared to the control experiments, with 70% of the wax worms surviving until day three. The observed potencies of frontrunner compounds in in vivo assays and their ease of synthesis make N2,N4-disubstituted quinazoline-2,4-diamines a suitable platform for the future development of anti-bacterial agents.
Scholar Commons Citation
Van Horn, Kurt Steven, "Anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial agents: Studies on 1,4-dihydropyridines and 2,4-diaminoquinazolines" (2013). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.