Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Government and International Affairs

Major Professor

Earl Conteh-Morgan, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Dajin Peng, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jorge Nef, Ph.D.


ONUC, MONUC, peacekeeping, peace-building, peace enforcement


This thesis studies the peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building efforts

undertaken by the United Nations (UN) in the Congo. Part one investigates the UN

mission in Congo 1960 to 1964 and the second part looks at the current mission that

started in 1999 which is currently ongoing. The final part makes a comparative analysis

of the two case studies.

Peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building are some of the approaches

the UN uses in order to manage and settle conflict. While these concepts are often related

to one another, they possess certain characteristics making them distinguishable. I

solemnly use these concepts when conducting the two case studies and the comparative

analysis. I study the mandates as well as the activities in the field. My main argument is

that while the mandates differed between the two peace operations, the actual activities in

the field shared many common features. I will show that the first peace operation in the

Congo deviated from all others undertaken by the UN thus far.

The Congo crisis in the sixties took place at the height of the Cold War. What

commenced as a traditional peacekeeping operation eventually turned into a mission of

peace enforcement. These enforcement measures were never supported by a Chapter VII

mandate. There were also elements of peace-building efforts such as trying to install

functioning governmental institutions. As such, it deviated from other peace operations

during that time. Although these are considered as pioneering for many current peacebuilding

missions, they cannot be considered as broad as today’s efforts.

The current peace operation in Congo also started as a peacekeeping operation.

As the conflict escalated, a Chapter VII mandate was provided to use force. Similarly to

the peace operation during the Cold War, it also went from a peacekeeping operation to

one of peace enforcement. However, the ongoing peace operation is provided with much

clearer and less arbitrary mandates. The peace-building efforts are also much broader.

Central to the mission is to aid in the implementation of a democratic system that will

survive once the peace operation has ended. These forms of efforts are quite typical since

the end of the Cold War.