Degree Granting Department
Government and International Affairs
Earl Conteh-Morgan, Ph.D.
Dajin Peng, Ph.D.
Jorge Nef, Ph.D.
ONUC, MONUC, peacekeeping, peace-building, peace enforcement
This thesis studies the peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building efforts
undertaken by the United Nations (UN) in the Congo. Part one investigates the UN
mission in Congo 1960 to 1964 and the second part looks at the current mission that
started in 1999 which is currently ongoing. The final part makes a comparative analysis
of the two case studies.
Peacekeeping, peace enforcement and peace-building are some of the approaches
the UN uses in order to manage and settle conflict. While these concepts are often related
to one another, they possess certain characteristics making them distinguishable. I
solemnly use these concepts when conducting the two case studies and the comparative
analysis. I study the mandates as well as the activities in the field. My main argument is
that while the mandates differed between the two peace operations, the actual activities in
the field shared many common features. I will show that the first peace operation in the
Congo deviated from all others undertaken by the UN thus far.
The Congo crisis in the sixties took place at the height of the Cold War. What
commenced as a traditional peacekeeping operation eventually turned into a mission of
peace enforcement. These enforcement measures were never supported by a Chapter VII
mandate. There were also elements of peace-building efforts such as trying to install
functioning governmental institutions. As such, it deviated from other peace operations
during that time. Although these are considered as pioneering for many current peacebuilding
missions, they cannot be considered as broad as today’s efforts.
The current peace operation in Congo also started as a peacekeeping operation.
As the conflict escalated, a Chapter VII mandate was provided to use force. Similarly to
the peace operation during the Cold War, it also went from a peacekeeping operation to
one of peace enforcement. However, the ongoing peace operation is provided with much
clearer and less arbitrary mandates. The peace-building efforts are also much broader.
Central to the mission is to aid in the implementation of a democratic system that will
survive once the peace operation has ended. These forms of efforts are quite typical since
the end of the Cold War.
Scholar Commons Citation
Fargo, Sofia, "An analysis of the United Nations: Two peace operations in the Congo" (2006). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.