2011

Dissertation

Ph.D.

#### Degree Granting Department

Mathematics and Statistics

Chris P. Tsokos

#### Keywords

Breast cancer, carbon dioxide, differential equation, Global warming, Power law process, Statistical modeling

#### Abstract

Statistical analysis and modeling are useful for understanding the behavior of different phenomena. In this study we will focus on two areas of applications: Global warming and cancer research. Global Warming is one of the major environmental challenge people face nowadays and cancer is one of the major health problem that people need to solve.

For Global Warming, we are interest to do research on two major contributable variables: Carbon dioxide (CO2) and atmosphere temperature. We will model carbon dioxide in the atmosphere data with a system of differential equations. We will develop a differential equation for each of six attributable variables that constitute CO2 in the atmosphere and a differential system of CO2 in the atmosphere. We are using real historical data on the subject phenomenon to develop the analytical form of the equations. We will evaluate the quality of the developed model by utilizing a retrofitting process. Having such an analytical system, we can obtain good estimates of the rate of change of CO2 in the atmosphere, individually and cumulatively as a function of time for near and far target times. Such information is quite useful in strategic planning of the subject matter. We will develop a statistical model taking into consideration all the attributable variables that have been identified and their corresponding response of the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere in the continental United States. The development of the statistical model that includes interactions and higher order entities, in addition to individual contributions to CO2 in the atmosphere, are included in the present study. The proposed model has been statistically evaluated and produces accurate predictions for a given set of the attributable variables. Furthermore, we rank the attributable variables with respect to their significant contribution to CO2 in the atmosphere.

For Cancer Research, the object of the study is to probabilistically evaluate commonly used methods to perform survival analysis of medical patients. Our study includes evaluation of parametric, semi-parametric and nonparametric analysis of probability survival models. We will evaluate the popular Kaplan-Meier (KM), the Cox Proportional Hazard (Cox PH), and Kernel density (KD) models using both Monte Carlo simulation and using actual breast cancer data. The first part of the evaluation will be based on how these methods measure up to parametric analysis and the second part using actual cancer data. As expected, the parametric survival analysis when applicable gives the best results followed by the not commonly used nonparametric Kernel density approach for both evaluations using simulation and actual cancer data. We will develop a statistical model for breast cancer tumor size prediction for United States patients based on real uncensored data. When we simulate breast cancer tumor size, most of time these tumor sizes are randomly generated. We want to construct a statistical model to generate these tumor sizes as close as possible to the real patients' data given other related information. We accomplish the objective by developing a high quality statistical model that identifies the significant attributable variables and interactions. We rank these contributing entities according to their percentage contribution to breast cancer tumor growth. This proposed statistical model can also be used to conduct surface response analysis to identify the necessary restrictions on the significant attributable variables and their interactions to minimize the size of the breast tumor.

We will utilize the Power Law process, also known as Non-homogenous Poisson Process and Weibull Process to evaluate the effectiveness of a given treatment for Stage I & II Ductal breast cancer patients. We utilize the shape parameter of the intensity function to evaluate the behavior of a given treatment with respect to its effectiveness. We will develop a differential equation that will characterize the behavior of the tumor as a function of time. Having such a differential equation, the solution of which once plotted will identify the rate of change of tumor size as a function of age. The structure of the differential equation consists of the significant attributable variables and their interactions to the growth of breast cancer tumor. Once we have developed the differential equations and its solution, we proceed to validate the quality of the proposed differential equations and its usefulness.

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