Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Martin Muschol, Ph.D.


Light Scattering, Metastable, Supersaturation, Phase Diagram, Tetragonal


X-ray diffraction from protein crystals remains the most reliable way to determine the molecular structure of proteins, and how this structure relates to biological function. However, we still lack the ability to predict solution conditions that support the nucleation and growth of high-quality protein crystals for X-ray diffraction studies. The overall goal of this thesis is two-fold: (a) determine the nucleation behavior and solubilities for lysozyme crystals with two distinct crystal structures (orthorhombic vs. tetragonal) and (b) investigate whether these changes in crystal habit and crystal solubility correlate with any discontinuities in the liquid-liquid phase boundary of lysozyme that occurs under the same solution conditions. We measured lysozyme crystal solubility by nucleating and subsequently dissolving very small lysozyme crystals in highly supersaturated solutions. The presence of crystals in our samples is detected and monitored by measuring the light scattered off the micron-sized crystals. These "turbidity measurements" are repeated across a range of protein concentrations, for pH 4.6 and 5.6, thereby yielding the crystal solubility boundary. Changes in crystal structure are assessed at the end of the experiments by microscopic inspection of the distinct crystal habits.