A device for manipulating a molecule in vivo relative to a target tissue in three dimensions includes a support and at least one member affixed to and extending away from the support. The member has at least two discrete and separately activatable electrodes. The electrodes are configured to establish a first electromagnetic field between selected electrodes sufficient to manipulate a molecule relative to a target tissue. The electrodes are further configured to establish a second, typically higher-level, electromagnetic field sufficient to cause transient permeability of a cell membrane within the target tissue. A third electromagnetic field may also be applied to cause further translation of the molecule into an electropermeabilized cell and/or manipulated with respect to the tissue. Thus three-dimensional manipulation of the molecule relative to the target tissue is effected to optimize a desired positioning thereof, such as entry into a cell.
Heller, Richard; Gilbert, Richard; and Jaroszeski, Mark, "Electroporation device and method" (2000). USF Patents. 827.
University of South Florida