education policy, quantitative literacy, numeracy, assessment
Variation is a natural result of any process, including education. Understanding how variation propagates and increases is necessary for designing educational interventions that work for the intended population. We show how common strategies such as setting standards and tracking can accidentally produce unintended and undesirable results due to the way variation moves through a system.
Wallace, Dorothy. "Parts Of The Whole: Thinking about Variance: Standards, Targets, Tracking, and Other Thoughts." Numeracy 3, Iss. 2 (2010): Article 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5038/1936-46184.108.40.206
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