Etiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Biological, familial and environmental factors identified in the development of disruptive behavior disorders

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Conduct problems are associated with a large number of biological, affective, cognitive, familial, and environmental risk factors. Further, research suggests that there may be multiple developmental pathways to conduct problems, each with their own unique constellation of risk and protective factors. Attempts at disaggregating youth into more homo­geneous subtypes have uncovered groups of youth that show similar risk factors and distinct developmental trajectories. This chapter will provide an overview of these major subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and the specific risk factors associated with each subtype. Assessment and treatment implications are discussed.