Subject Area Keywords

Al-Qaida, Armed groups, Asymmetric warfare, Counterterrorism, National security, Radicalization, Religious violence, Science and technology & security, Terrorism / counterterrorism, Violent extremism, Weapons of mass destruction


Editor’s Note: This article forms part of a series of related case studies collected in this Special Issue and should be viewed in the context of the broader phenomenon of complex engineering by violent non-state actors. Readers are advised to consult the introductory and concluding papers for a full explanation and comparative analysis of the cases.


This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories, Contract #1525332. Any opinions, findings, conclusions and recommendations in this issue are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect views of Sandia National Laboratories or the U.S. Department of Energy.