Cities play a vital role in promoting economic growth and prosperity. The development of cities largely depends upon their physical, social, and institutional infrastructure. In this context, the importance of intraurban transportation is paramount. This article provides an overview of urban transport issues in India. Rather than covering every aspect of urban transportation, it primarily focuses on those areas that are important from a policy point of view. The article first reviews the trends of vehicular growth and availability of transport infrastructure in Indian cities. This is followed by a discussion on the nature and magnitude of urban transport problems such as congestion, pollution, and road accidents. Building on this background, the article proposes policy measures to improve urban transportation in India. Indian cities cannot afford to cater only to private cars and two-wheelers and there has to be a general recognition that policy should be designed in such a way that it reduces the need to travel by personalized modes and boosts public transport system. This requires both an increase in quantity as well as quality of public transport and effective use of demand as well as supply-side management measures. At the same time, people should be encouraged to walk and cycle and government should support investments that make cycling and walking safer.