The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence factors on willingness to use a public bicycle system and to analyze the impact of each. Ordered Logit and Probit models were used to analyze the change in user willingness after improvements were made. Data were collected from a random survey conducted in September and October 2014 in Nanjing, China. The findings of this research indicate seven factors that most influence willingness to use a public bicycle system, including socioeconomic factors and journey restrictions. Socioeconomic factors (gender, employment, and car ownership) have more impact on user willingness than journey restrictions. In addition, socioeconomic and station facility considerations have the greatest impact on increasing the probability of users being “very willing” to use a public bicyucle system.