This article reviews the results of eight national transportation management association (TMA) surveys conducted between 1989 and 2003 using meta-analytical techniques. TMAs became popular as vehicles for dealing with traffic congestion and related problems in the late 1980s. Despite their initial popularity, however, many TMAs struggled in the 1990s, and by 2002 almost half of all TMAs formed in previous years had disappeared. Median TMA annual budgets bottomed out in 1991, but have since rebounded to a new high in 2003. TMAs today are more diverse in terms of organizational structure, offer a wider variety of products and services, and have better financial security. With higher gasoline prices and a heightened awareness of the security issues related to foreign oil dependence, the market for TMA programs and services seems likely to grow, if perhaps at a modest pace, during the foreseeable future.
Transportation Management Associations: A Reappraisal.
Journal of Public Transportation, 10 (4): 1-26.
Available at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/jpt/vol10/iss4/1