This article summarizes current research on regional rail passenger service in Germany. The aim of the research was to help rail operators, municipalities along the rail lines, and transportation planners identify the most effective strategies for improving rail service and patronage. The article outlines study contents and purpose and then summarizes the most important study findings. It also presents action and research recommendations. In addition, current rail developments in Germany and methods for increasing patronage and reducing costs with special focus on the separation of infrastructure and operations are described. Finally, patronage data for different rail segments are compared to help determine whether improvement measures should be applied and what impacts they could have on patronage.