Instructions for Authors

Submission and Publication Process
Review Process
Cover Page, Abstracts, and Acknowledgments
Body Text
Scientific Names and Non-English Words
Units of Measurement Times & Dates
Statistical Indices and Equations
Endnotes & Footnotes
Quotations and Citations in Text
References Cited
Tables, Figures & Graphics

Submission and Publication Process

Research article manuscripts should not exceed 7,500 words, and crib, field, or data notes should not exceed 3,000 words. These limits include references, appendices, tables and figures. We prefer any version of Microsoft Word documents. Tables, figures and graphics are encouraged; however, please do not include them in the manuscripts of Word documents. Submit them separately. All text, including front material, figure captions, tables, references cited at the end should be double spaced. Be sure to number pages beginning after the title page. If electronic submission is not possible, please send 3 paper copies of the manuscript on single-sided 8-1/2" x 11" paper. Upon acceptance for publication, copies of manuscripts will be requested via e-mail attachment or on a CD with only text and tables, accompanied by one hard copy of text, figures and tables.

Page proofs are made available to authors as .pdf files. Authors must check proofs for typographical errors. No rewriting will be allowed in page proofs. Only mistakes such as misspellings, missing words, or punctuation can be corrected at this stage. The editors must be notified of corrections to page proofs within 5 business days. Page proofs can be sent as hard copy upon request.
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Review Process

All submissions (excluding book reviews and "Last Bites") will be independently evaluated by the editor and three reviewers. Only submissions which are unpublished and not under consideration elsewhere for publication will be accepted. The editors reserve the right to reject or return for revision any material submitted based on appropriateness of subject matter, conformity with this style guide, quality and clarity of research, writing, and illustrations. Please note that "appropriateness of subject matter" will be defined loosely due to the interdisciplinary nature of the Journal. Take care to follow closely the guidelines for references and citations below.

Manuscripts that fail to conform to all of the guidelines on this page may be returned without review.
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Cover Page, Abstracts, and Acknowledgments

On the cover page, include the names, titles, and addresses of all authors. Include one address for all correspondence if there is more than one author. Also, include on the cover page the title of the manuscript, the date of submission, a running head (an abridged title to appear on each page), and between four and six keywords. (Keywords help us identify potential reviewers and are submitted to indexing services.)

Immediately following the title page, and on its own page, include an abstract of no more than 300 words. Please be as descriptive as possible regarding the manuscript's main arguments and conclusions. Avoid such general phrases as "implications for conservation are discussed." Instead, for example, briefly list such implications.

Include any acknowledgements on a separate page, immediately following the abstract page.
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Body Text

All guidelines for text not discussed here follow those of the Chicago Manual of Style.
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Scientific Names and Non-English Words

  • Latin names for genera and species are italicized (e.g., Corvus coronoides). Please use italics, and do not underline (unless the author only has access to a typewriter).
  • Genera may be abbreviated in subsequent usage (e.g., C. mellori), but species are never abbreviated.
  • Derivatives of scientific classification (e.g., corvid, australopithecine, mammalian) and English common names (e.g., red oak, black-backed gull) are not capitalized unless containing a proper noun (e.g., American robin, Stellar's jay).
  • All non-English or non-Latin terms used in text, and their orthographic marks, should be bolded but neither italicized nor capitalized (e.g., the Gallong lexeme 'pak) upon their first use only. This includes European language terms. Foreign language quotes do not need to be bolded.
  • English glosses/translations are indicated by single quotes and set in parentheses immediately following the foreign term, as in "The Maya believe in aluuxo'ob (’elves’)." Parentheses are not used if the translation is part of the sentence narrative, as in "Susto is a psychological illness caused by fright." Note that foreign terms do not require quotations.
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Avoid unnecessary abbreviations that may confuse readers. When abbreviations are used, they carry periods: B.C., U.S.A. , B.C.E., except for the most familiar acronyms, such as UNESCO. All acronyms should be spelled out at their first use.
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  • Numbers one through ten are spelled out, except in the case of measurements (e.g., 5 cm, 4 g, but nine crows). Numbers 11 and higher are written as numerals, except when beginning sentences (e.g., "Sixty-four years ago the volcano erupted"), or when used in an approximate sense (e.g., "Not more than two hundred years ago, the volcano erupted").
  • In referring to parts of books, numerals are not spelled out (e.g., chapter 7, or p. 5).
  • There is a comma in numbers greater than 999 (except page numbers in references).
  • A naked decimal point should be preceded by a zero (e.g., 0.01, not .01)
  • Century designations use numerals, and "century" is not capitalized, as in "17th century."
  • A decade is referred to as "the 1940s" (not the "1940's" or "forties").
  • When expressing percentages, the word "percent" is written out (e.g., "25 percent" not "25%").
  • When inclusive pages are cited, no digits are dropped (e.g., pp. 174-175, not 174-5); likewise, when a span of years is cited within a single century, no digits are dropped (e.g., 1955-1967).
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Units of Measurement, Times & Dates

  • All measurements should be in metric units, lower case, separated from numeric values by a space, and not terminated with a period (e.g., 34 km, 45 ha, 7.3 m, 5 kg, 90 sec, 5 min intervals). Exceptions include contextual linguistic references, such as "all swidden plots are exactly two pok'ong".
  • English or other non-metric terms may also be used in a general sense, such as "cultivators seeking more acreage" or "many miles of coastline."
  • All times follow international conventions (e.g., "we observed farmers each day from 8:00 to 14:00 ," not "8:00 am" or "2 pm").
  • Dates follow the English system (e.g., September 7, 1988), with months spelled out. Otherwise, use the following abbreviations: sec, min, hr, mm, cm, m, km, g, kg, etc.
  • Relative time periods are refered to as CE (Christian era), BCE (before Christian era), BP (before present), or MYR (millions years ago).
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Statistical Indices and Equations

The following statistical indices are in italics:

  • n (sample size, lower case)
  • P (probability rounded to two decimal places, except when P <0.001, in which case limit it to three decimal places).
  • t (t-test, with a subscript = degrees of freedom)
  • F (F-ratio, with subscripts = appropriate degrees of freedom)
  • X (WITH BAR, mean)
  • U (Mann-Whitney U-test)
  • r (simple correlation coefficient; Pearson r)
  • R (multiple regression coefficient)
  • G (G-test)

The following statistical information is set in normal font, not italics

  • SD (standard deviation)
  • SE (standard error)
  • X (USE GREEK CHI for chi-square, with subscript = degrees of freedom)
  • CV (coefficient of variation)
  • df (degrees of freedom)
  • ns (nonsignificant)
  • Equations more complicated than linear algebra should be submitted using the equation editor of Microsoft Word version 5.0 or higher, if possible. Otherwise, omit equations from the electronic version to avoid typesetting problems, and submit them in hard copy only. Note in the margin of the hard copy where the equation should appear.
  • Mathematical derivations or unique symbols used in graphics should be included as footnotes, or as appendices if they are lengthy or require explanation.
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Endnotes & Footnotes

  • All endnotes are restricted to material that cannot be conveniently included in the text, tables, or figures.
  • Avoid unnecessarily long notes.
  • Endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the text by superscript numbers.
  • Footnotes will not be accepted.
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Quotations and Citations in Text

  • Pages are cited for all quotes and references from books, but not for journal articles or references cited as book sections, unless quoted directly.
  • Direct quotations exceeding four manuscript lines of typing should be set off from the text by indenting three spaces from the left margin and omitting quotation marks.
  • Material added to quotes by the author of the article should be enclosed in brackets, not parentheses. Parentheses should also enclose the citation of source, at the end of the quotation, if it has not already been given in the text of the manuscript.
  • Emphasis (underlining in manuscript, italics in print) should be identified as "in original" or "added."
  • Omissions in a quotation are indicated by ellipses, using three dots where one or more words are omitted; if occurring at the end of a sentence, a period must follow: "Songbirds are most advanced . . . and apparently latest to evolve. . . . They have developed an infinite variety of types."
  • In all quotations and titles of books, articles, etc., the actual spelling of the original is used.
  • Following each quotation or a statement requiring a reference, the citation is placed in parentheses.
  • If the author of the quotation is clear from the text, then the citation should only include the year of publication and the page(s).
  • In-text references include the author's name, followed by the year of publication and page, if required, for example: (Johnson and Clue 1983:115-119).
  • For three or more authors, use the first author's name followed by "et al." without italics: (Manning et al. 1970:21-22).
  • Multiple references are combined within parentheses, separated by a semicolon, and arranged alphabetically (Brown 1985; Cronk 1976; Zeiffel 1960).
  • For multiple works by the same author, the name is not repeated and the years are separated by commas (Caruthers 1985, 1991; Manning et al. 1970).
  • In general, no more than three appropriate references are needed in support of an idea. Long lists of references detract from the readability of a manuscript, and are usually redundant. We strongly discourage the use of "courtesy citations." If more than three sources must be cited to make a point, consider using an endnote.
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References Cited

  • The text is followed by heading "References Cited," and these references include only publications cited in the text.
  • The References Cited section should begin on a separate page, and all entries must be double-spaced, listed alphabetically by last name of senior author, and chronologically for two or more titles by the same author(s).
  • In listing an unusual reference, include all information needed to enable a reader to identify and locate the source.
  • Never abbreviate journal names.
  • Please conform to the format illustrated in the examples below for cited references, which follows roughly that of Current Anthropology. Authors using software to produce citations may select the style for Current Anthropology. But, please note the following differences:
  • Authors' first and middle names are abbreviated.
  • All authors are cited regardless of number (i.e., not "et al.")
  • Please do not attempt to typeset citations with tabs, indents, columns, or small caps. Simply separate each citation as a left justified paragraph, but be sure to follow punctuation and order of information closely. Include all non-English characters (e.g., é, ö, and ñ).
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Examples of Journal articles

  • Alcorn, J.B. 1981 Huastec noncrop resource management: Implications for prehistoric rain forest management. Human Ecology 9:395-417.
  • Armelagos, G.J., T. Leatherman, M. Ryan, and L. Sibley. 1992 Biocultural synthesis in medical anthropology. Medical Anthropology 14:35-52.

Example of a book (include subtitles of books)

  • Burch, W.R., and D.R. Deluca. 1984 Not enough: Measuring the social impact of natural resource policies. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Example of an entire edited book

  • Burch, W.R., and D.R. Deluca, Eds. 1984 Not enough: Measuring the social impact of natural resource policies. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Examples of sections of edited books

  • Ås, D. 1975 "Observing environmental behavior: The behavior setting," in Behavioral research methods in environmental design. Edited by W. Michelson, pp. 280-300. Stroudsburg, PA: Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross.
  • Burch, W.R. 1992 "Thinking social scientifically about agroforestry," in Social science applications in Asian agroforestry. Edited by W.R. Burch and E. Parker, pp. 111-134. Delhi: South Asia Books.

Example of a presented paper

  • Stepp, J.R. 1997 "Tzeltal Maya medicinal plant ethnoecology: An assessment in the municipality of Tenejapa." Paper presented at the 2nd International Congress of Ethnobotany. Mérida, Yucatán, México.

Example of a government or industry report

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 2005 Habitat management plan for the speckled goose (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05-00240). Spokane, WA: Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Example of an internet resource

  • Deming, D., and S. Dynarski. 2008 Non-timber resources of the Pacific Northwest (NBER Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124.

Example of a thesis or dissertation

  • Brett, J.A. 1994 Medical plant selection criteria among the Tzeltal Maya of highland Chiapas. Ph.D. diss., University of California, Berkeley.
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Tables, Figures & Graphics

  • Please do not submit manuscripts with figures or tables embedded in Word documents. For figures, submit them as separate .jpg, .gif, .tiff, .psd, .png or .ai files, or the format of whatever original software was used to create them. For tables, create them as Word Document tables and submit them in a separate document. Do not submit tables as images copies and pasted in a Word Document.
  • We do not print in color, so please design your graphics (especially maps) in black and white or grayscale. Choose color photos that will convert to black and white well. Save all electronic graphics at a resolution of 300 dpi or greater.
  • We require written documentation of permission to reproduce graphics or tables from other sources.
  • Keep tables as clear as possible. They should be intelligible without reference to the manuscript.
  • Tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals (1,2,3 . . .) in the order they appear in the text.
  • Each table should appear on a separate page and be identified by a short descriptive title at the top of the table.
  • Footnotes for tables appear at the bottom of each table and are marked with lowercase, superscript letters.
  • All illustrative material (figures such as drawings, charts, maps, models, and diagrams) should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are referred to in the text and submitted as a numbered series of figures at the end of the text and after tables.
  • Include a separate page of numbered figure captions that correspond to the figures.
  • Illustrative material is returned to authors after a manuscript is published. Any credit for artwork should immediately follow the caption.
  • Notations should be made in the body of the manuscript to indicate approximate placement of tables and figures.
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