Sphaeromicola cebennica juberthiei n. ssp., a cavernicolous ostracod found in the South of France (Système de Cent Fons and Avencas, Herault), is described here. The new subspecies differs from Sph. cebennica cebennica (found in a cave from Ardèche) by the smaller carapace and a reduced distal bristle on the ‘finger” of the male copulatory organ. The affinities and differences between the European Sphaeromicola and Sph. cirolanae from Mexico are discussed. The genus Sphaeromicola is divided into two groups of species: the group topsenti and the group cirolanae. Some observations on the mating process of Sph. Cebennica juberthiei are presented. A precocious sexual behaviour of the female in the last post-embryonic instar is recorded. This type of behaviour seems to be a characteristic of the Entocytheridae.