The dry climate of Israel and the karstic nature of its rocks have always imposed human innovation for utilisation of water resources and agriculture. Large perennial karst springs are available only in the lowlands, but sophisticated water supply systems were built both in the lowland and highland regions. Marl layers interbedded within carbonates give rise to local perched springs and allow terrace construction. Deforestation has taken place for some 4000 years, causing intense soil erosion, but terraces have reduced this impact.
Interaction between karst, water and agriculture over the climatic gradient of Israel.
International Journal of Speleology,
Available at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/ijs/vol28/iss1/7