The evolution of gypsum bare rock surfaces is the result both of volume changes of the outer rock layer and mass wasting by dissolutional processes. Some unusual weathering processes induce an increase in the volume of the outer gypsum layer, resulting in the development of a “weathering crust” and of characteristic forms such as small ridges and bubbles. However, the more typical erosional forms are dissolutional ones of karren type, which are commonly interconnected, or superimposed upon the previously described forms. In this chapter a classification system is proposed and discussed, within which the magnitude, order and geometry of the different karren forms are outlined, and the related lithofacies and main morphogenetic processes are examined.
Macaluso, Tommaso and Ugo Sauro.
Weathering crust and karren on exposed gypsum surfaces.
International Journal of Speleology,
Available at: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/ijs/vol25/iss3/9