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social inclusion policies, conditional cash transfers, affirmative action policies, discrimination


This article argues that investment in social inclusion policies is an economically efficient option for developing countries. It analyzes different social inclusion policies, particularly those practiced in Brazil and Colombia, as they demonstrate, among other things, the racial dimension of exclusion and the corresponding economic contribution of race-based social inclusion policies to sustained economic growth and development. These cases also demonstrate that educational policies are central to social inclusion programs, because they render the highest economic medium and long-term return. Evidence supporting this argument comes from Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs), a Brazilian social policy that has become a landmark in social policy, as well as from Brazil’s Affirmative Action (AA) policies.


Copyright © 2013 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore and Washington DC) Vol 29(2): 189–212. DOI: 10.1177/0169796X13479707 Table of Contents: