Graduation Year


Document Type

Ed. Specalist



Degree Granting Department

Psychological and Social Foundations

Major Professor

Kelly A. Powell-Smith, PhD.


Reading, Parent tutoring, Phonemic awareness, Early literacy, Multiple baseline


This study examined the efficacy of the Sound Foundations program, implemented by parents, for increasing phonological awareness (PA). Three kindergarten students identified with PA deficits and their mothers served as participants. Parents implemented Sound Foundations twice per week for five and a half weeks. The effects of the intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline across participants design. PA was measured using the Phoneme Segmentation Fluency measure of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills. Results showed that two students showed increases over time in phonemes per minute after the parent intervention. A third student did not show substantial mprovement. None of the students reached established levels of PA. Treatment integrity and social validity data also were collected.