Graduation Year

2007

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Wilfrido A. Moreno, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Kimon P. Valavanis, Ph.D.

Keywords

Inertial navigation, Monte Carlo methods, Position estimation, Cooperative systems, Wireless networks, Protocols

Abstract

A novel solution for the localization of wireless networked systems is presented. The solution is based on cooperative estimation, inter-node ranging and strap-down inertial navigation. This approach overrides limitations that are commonly found in currently available localization/positioning solutions. Some solutions, such as GPS, make use of previously deployed infrastructure. In other methods, computations are performed in a central fusion center. In the robotics field, current localization techniques rely on a simultaneous localization and mapping, (SLAM), process, which is slow and requires sensors such as laser range finders or cameras.One of the main attributes of this research is the holistic view of the problem and a systems-engineering approach, which begins with analyzing requirements and establishing metrics for localization.

The all encompassing approach provides for concurrent consideration and integration of several aspects of the localization problem, from sensor fusion algorithms for position estimation to the communication protocols required for enabling cooperative localization. As a result, a conceptual solution is presented, which is flexible, general and one that can be adapted to a variety of application scenarios. A major advantage of the solution resides in the utilization of wireless network interfaces for communications and for exteroceptive sensing. In addition, the localization solution can be seamlessly integrated into other localization schemes, which will provide faster convergence, higher accuracy and less latency.Two case-studies for developing the main aspects of cooperative localization were employed. Wireless sensor networks and multi-robot systems, composed of ground robots, provided an information base from which this research was launched.

In the wireless sensor network field, novel nonlinear cooperative estimation algorithms are proposed for sequential position estimation. In the field of multi-robot systems the issues of mobility and proprioception, which uses inertial measurement systems for estimating motion, are contemplated. Motion information, in conjunction with range information and communications, can be used for accurate localization and tracking of mobile nodes. A novel partitioning of the sensor fusion problem is presented, which combines an extended Kalman filter for dead-reckoning and particle filters for aiding navigation.

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