Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Ojmarrh Mitchell, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Wesley Jennings, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Terance Miethe, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Ráchael Powers, Ph.D.


victimization, demographic factors, conjunctive analysis, routine activities theory


My dissertation sought to expand the study of victimization by examining non-linear relationships across victim, offender, and offense characteristics within a routine activities theory framework. Moreover, my goals were to assess victimization risk using a more realistic approach through the implementation of a situational perspective approach and conjunctive analysis. Conjunctive analysis is an analytical with both quantitative and qualitative properties, which allowed for interpretations that were detail oriented and summative. Utilizing data from the National Crime Victimization Survey, several victim (e.g., demographic factors), offender (e.g., victim-offender relationship), and offense (contextual factors) characteristics were analyzed. Conjunctive analysis was estimated for incidents by victimization type and by race/ethnicity. The results indicated the presence of main (linear) effects and interaction (non-linear) effects. Main effects by victimization type provided support for prior research on victimization risk, such as the majority of victims emerging as young, white, and male. Interaction effects revealed young and female victims were vulnerable to attacks from non-stranger offenders; whereas, older and male victims were prone to stranger attacks. When estimated by race and ethnicity, whites and blacks were also more likely to be attacked by someone with whom they were familiar; whereas, victims categorized as other were more likely to be attacked by strangers. Theoretical and policy implications were discussed.