Graduation Year

2014

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Medical Sciences

Major Professor

Dmitry I. Gabrilovich

Keywords

CCL4, inflammation, MDSC, S100A9, T helper Cells

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Although there is ample evidence linking chronic inflammation with cancer, the cellular mechanisms involved in early events leading to tumor development remain unclear. Myeloid cells are an intricate part of inflammation. They consist of mature cells represented by macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes and a population of Immature Myeloid Cells (IMC), which in healthy individuals are cells in transition to mature cells. There is a substantial expansion of IMC in cancer and many other pathological conditions which is associated with pathologic activation of these cells. As a result, these cells acquire the ability to suppress immune responses and are termed Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs). Although the role of MDSC in immune suppression in cancer and tumor progression is well established, their contribution to tumor development is still uncertain. The fact that cells with MDSC phenotype and function are observed in chronic inflammation raised the possibility that these cells can contribute to initial stages of tumor development. To address this question, we used an experimental system where the number of IMC was regulated by the expression of S100A9 protein.

In this project, we used two different models of chronic inflammation in S100A9 transgenic (S100A9tg) and S100A9 knock-out (S100A9KO) mice. In the first model, we created the conditions for topical accumulation of these cells in the skin in the absence of infection or tissue damage using S100A9tg mice. Accumulation of IMC in the skin resulted in a dramatic increase in the formation of skin tumors during epidermal carcinogenesis. Conversely, lack of myeloid cell accumulation in S100A9KO mice substantially reduced the formation of skin papillomas. The effect of IMC was not associated with immune suppression but with the recruitment of CD4+ T cells mediated by CCL4 chemokine released by activated IMC. Elimination of CD4+ T cells or blockade of CCL4 abrogated the increase in tumor formation caused by myeloid cells. Thus, this study implicates the accumulation of IMC as an initial step in facilitating of tumor formation, which can mediate the recruitment of CD4+ T cells via the release of CCL4 chemokine.

In the second model, we used inflammation-associated lung cancer caused by the chemical lung carcinogen urethane in combination with exposure to cigarette smoke referred to throughout as CS. Exposure of mice to CS alone resulted in a significant accumulation of cells with typical MDSC phenotype in different organs; however, these cells lacked immune suppressive activity and could not be defined as bona fide MDSC. When CS was combined with the single dose of urethane, it led to the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. The expansion of MDSC followed the onset of lung tumors development. This suggests that MDSC in this model is not the preceding factor but rather a consequence of tumor formation. Further studies are necessary to determine the relevance of targeting these cells for cancer treatment and prevention.

Share

COinS