Graduation Year

2014

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Chemistry

Major Professor

Mark McLaughlin

Abstract

The protein-protein interactions (PPIs) occur when two or more proteins are bound together. Also, this protein-protein interactions (PPIs) cause the various biological processes in the body. Due to this reason, abilities of controlling or inhibiting PPIs can give us promising advantages like (1) better understanding of biological systems, (2) development of new diagnostic approaches for health or disease, and (3) establishment of novel molecular therapeutics. Many proteins adopt the secondary structures, where most of protein-protein interactions take place. -Helices and -sheets are the prevalent secondary conformations, but there are extended secondary structures such as -hairpins, -turns, 310 helix, and so on. As a result, construction of molecules mimicking these protein secondary structures is tractable target for drug design.

Moreover, in drug discovery, designing peptidomimetics or non-peptidic mimetics is a popular strategy instead using peptides or truncated peptides because peptides or truncated peptides are prone to proteolysis and degraded in the body. Also, peptidomimetics and non-peptidic mimetics have not only the similar topology as peptides but also resistance to proteolysis. Due to these advantages, in this study, peptidomimetics or non-peptidic mimetics were synthesized and tested for different targets: (1) synthesis of non-peptidic -helical mimetics for p53-MDM2 inhibition, (2) solution-phase synthesis of -hairpin peptide for the inhibition of multiple myeloma cells (MM) adhesion, and (3) synthesis of -hairpin peptoid-peptide hybrids.

The synthesis in all three different studies was succeeded, but they still need some improvements. For instance, non-peptidic -helical mimetics, terpyrimidyl derivatives, were synthesized successfully, but they did not show any bioactivity against p53-MDM2. Also, they have a solubility problem. Based on these results, it is necessary to improve the pharmacokinetic properties and bioactivity by changing the substituents on the rings or structures.

The -hairpin peptide for the second case already showed good bioactivity against multiple myeloma (MM). For the next level of bio-study, the considerable amount of a -hairpin peptide was demanded. In order to make the substantial -hairpin peptide, the solution phase peptide synthesis was chosen instead of the solid phase peptide synthesis because of the cost-effect. Two methodology were tried for the solution-phase peptide synthesis: (1) segment ligation and (2) continuous synthesis. In the former case, the -hairpin peptide synthesis was successful, but, in the latter case, it is necessary to investigate the appropriate coupling reagents for each step.

Peptoid-peptide hybrids has been one of the popular peptidomimetics in the last two decades. Also, mimicking the peptide secondary structure in peptoids has been studied extensively these days. The combination of these two factors was the goal for the third case. Because peptoid-peptide hybrids with a secondary structure can be recognizable by native proteins and resistant to proteolysis. So far, three sets of peptoid-peptide hybrids were synthesize and checked the secondary structure formation by using NMR. However, there was no indication of the secondary structure formation in the three sets of peptoid-peptide hybrids. This result suggests that it is necessary to introduce the more constrained components in peptoid-peptide hybrids.

In the above three chapters, it has been tried to find the new drug candidates by synthesizing peptidomimetics or non-peptidic mimetics. Even though the synthesis was successful, some intended results such as the bioactivity or the secondary structure formation were not obtained. However, these results can give us the inspirations to improve properties of peptidomimetics or non-peptidic mimetics for a certain purpose, which leads to earn the intended results and eventually find new drug candidates.

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Chemistry Commons

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