Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Don Morel


Characterization, Fabrication, Large scale manufacture, Reproducibility, Throughput


An advancement of the two stage growth recipe for the fabrication of CIGS solar cells was developed. The developed advancement was inconsistent in producing samples of similar stoichiometry. This was a huge barrier for up scaling the process as the behavior of devices would be different due to variation in stoichiometry. Samples with reproducible stoichiometry were obtained once the heating rate of elements, selenium in particular was better understood. This is mainly attributed to the exponential increase of selenium flux after its evaporation temperature. Monitoring the selenium flux was vital in getting constant selenium fluxes. Few changes to the growth recipe were induced to optimize the amount of selenium being used. Depositions were done using constant selenium to metal flux ratio of 5. Elemental tradeoffs were observed as a result of the growth recipe change. These tradeoffs are in favor of the two stage growth recipe. The solar cells were fabricated on a soda lime glass substrate with a molybdenum back contact. Improper sample cleaning and storage were found to affect the deposition outcome of the molybdenum back contact. This also had a cascading effect on the absorber layer. Residual precipitates during deposition of CdS were avoided by increasing the spinner speed which increased the reaction rate. This is attributed to the growth of CdS either by cluster-by-cluster growth or by ion-by-ion growth. SEM, EDS were some important tools used to characterize the devices. EDS in particular, was used extensively at different stages throughout the growth process to ensure that we were heading in the right direction. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were done to study the solar cell performance under light and dark.