Graduation Year

2012

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Medical Sciences

Major Professor

Roland D. Shytle

Co-Major Professor

Javier Cuevas

Keywords

bioavailability, cocrystal, EGCg, nanoparticle, quercetin

Abstract

One of the largest obstacles in drug development is to overcome solubility and bioavailability problems. Preformulation strategies such as nanoparticle formation are often employed but sometimes create new issues and are limited in their effectiveness and applications. Since the majority of drugs are marketed and sold as solid forms, drug delivery systems are not always desirable. This is where solid-state chemistry becomes important. Traditional solid-state chemistry approaches are often successful but are sometimes too restrictive and cannot be applied to certain compounds. Cocrystals have emerged as an alternative solid-state technique that can be applied to a broad range of compounds. However, the technology is still very new and its effectiveness in certain conditions had previously not been evaluated.

The studies detailed herein investigated the ability of two different technology platforms for overcoming drug design challenges for two promising bioflavonoids: EGCg and quercetin. Studies have shown that EGCg might be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Quercetin is being investigated for numerous bioactivities and is currently being marketed as an energy dietary supplement. Both of these bioflavonoids exhibit poor bioavailability and water solubilities that are at opposite ends of the spectrum. In the chapters to follow, nanoparticle technology was applied to EGCg and evaluated in cell models of AΒ production, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Bioavailability improvements were also evaluated in rats. Additionally, new forms of both flavonoids were created using cocrystallization. These new cocrystals were characterized using powder and single crystal x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. Solubility and bioavailability changes were also evaluated. These data have strong implications in drug development since they elucidated the strengths and weaknesses of two major technologies in compounds with different design challenges.