Graduation Year

2012

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Chemistry

Major Professor

Michael J. Zaworotko

Keywords

Catechols, Crystal engineering, Hydrochlorothiazide, Lithium, p-Coumaric acid, Zwitterion

Abstract

Most of the biological systems in nature are sustained by molecular self-assemblies which are the finest examples of supramolecular architectures. Non-covalent interactions are key concepts which govern these molecular assemblies. Inspired by these examples crystal engineering emerged as an important tool in supramolecular chemistry which aids in the invention of new molecular structures with desired properties. Understanding of how the molecules interact at the molecular levels enables one to rationally design novel solid forms with modulated physicochemical properties. This feature of crystal engineering has heightened its position in materials chemistry and is currently one of the most well studied fields for generating novel compounds with pre-defined composition and supramolecular architectures.

One such class of compounds that has immensely attracted the scientific community and is under continuous study for wider applications is cocrystals. The applications include various interdisciplinary fields such as pharmaceutics, catalysis, organic conductors, explosives etc. Distinctly on the other side, cocrystals also provide a means to discover new supramolecular synthons which is the ultimate key to molecular assembly. Many robust supramolecular synthons have been discovered and hierarchies are also being developed which can serves as a design tool for cocrystal synthesis. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is an important accessory in determining the robustness of a supramolecular synthon but, this does not preclude us from discovering new synthons.

The work presented here explores new persistent supramolecular synthons in polyphenols utilizing the basic concepts of crystal engineering and the CSD statistical analysis. This contribution also includes the implementation of cocrystallization for various categories of compounds which includes nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals and ionic salts for the design and synthesis of molecular and ionic cocrystals.

Chapter 1 highlights how supramolecular synthon approach can be used to design and synthesize multi-component crystals, namely, cocrystals. The role of the CSD and its importance in crystal engineering has also been discussed. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on new persistent supramolecular synthons in the context of nutraceuticals. The cocrystals isolated in the study are also compared with the existing cocrystals in the CSD supramolecularly in terms of synthon formation. These persistent supramolecular synthons are helpful in developing hierarchies which could be utilized and applied to similar and analogous compounds. The main feature of Chapter 4 is expanding the field of cocrystallization by studying the properties of cocrystals. Some of the properties which have been examined here include effects of cocrystallization on solubility and correlations between the solubility of cocrystal with cocrystal former (CCF) and melting point of the cocrystal. The extension of cocrystals to the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has been explored in the context of pharmaceutical cocrystals by selecting a BCS class IV drug, hydrochlorothiazide in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 highlights the hybridization of organic and inorganic components for the synthesis of ionic cocrystals and is exemplified by considering lithium salts with achiral and homochiral amino acids for the generation of 1:1 and 1:2 cocrystals.

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