Graduation Year

2012

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Mathematics and Statistics

Major Professor

Wen-Xiu Ma

Keywords

Bilinear operator, Grammian solution, Nonlinear partial differential equations, Pfaffian solution, Pfaffian technique, Wronskian solution

Abstract

The aim of this work is to use the Pfaffian technique, along with the Hirota bilinear method to construct different classes of exact solutions to various of generalized integrable nonlinear partial differential equations. Solitons are among the most beneficial solutions for science and technology, from ocean waves to transmission of information through optical fibers or energy transport along protein molecules. The existence of multi-solitons, especially three-soliton solutions, is essential for information technology: it makes possible undisturbed simultaneous propagation of many pulses in both directions.

The derivation and solutions of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in two spatial dimensions have been the holy grail in the field of nonlinear science since the late 1960s. The prestigious Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations, as well as the ,Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) and Davey-Stewartson (DS) equations, are prototypical examples of integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions, respectively. Do there exist Pfaffian and soliton solutions to generalized integrable nonlinear partial differential equations in (3+1) dimensions? In this dissertation, I obtained a set of explicit exact Wronskian, Grammian, Pfaffian and N-soliton solutions to the (3+1)-dimensional generalized integrable nonlinear partial differential equations, including a generalized KP equation, a generalized B-type KP equation, a generalized modified B-type KP equation, soliton equations of Jimbo-Miwa type, the nonlinear Ma-Fan equation, and the Jimbo-Miwa equation. A set of sufficient conditions consisting of systems of linear partial differential equations involving free parameters and continuous functions is generated to guarantee that the Wronskian determinant or the Pfaffian solves these generalized equations.

On the other hand, as part of this dissertation, bilinear Bäcklund transformations are formally derived for the (3+1)-dimensional generalized integrable nonlinear partial differential equations: a generalized B-type KP equation, the nonlinear Ma-Fan equation, and the Jimbo-Miwa equation. As an application of the obtained Bäcklund transformations, a few classes of traveling wave solutions, rational solutions and Pfaffian solutions to the corresponding equations are explicitly computed.

Also, as part of this dissertation, I would like to apply the Pfaffianization mechanism of Hirota and Ohta to extend the (3+1)-dimensional variable-coefficient soliton equation of Jimbo-Miwa type to coupled systems of nonlinear soliton equations, called Pfaffianized systems.

Examples of the Wronskian, Grammian, Pfaffian and soliton solutions are explicitly computed. The numerical simulations of the obtained solutions are illustrated and plotted for different parameters involved in the solutions.

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