Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Computer Science and Engineering

Major Professor

Nagarajan Ranganathan


Conservative Logic, Datapath Functional Units, Quantum Computing, Quantum Dot Cellular Automata, Reversible Logic


Reversible circuits are similar to conventional logic circuits except that they are built from reversible gates. In reversible gates, there is a unique, one-to-one mapping between the inputs and outputs, not the case with conventional logic. Also, reversible gates require constant ancilla

inputs for reconfiguration of gate functions and garbage outputs that help in keeping reversibility. Reversible circuits hold promise in futuristic computing technologies like quantum computing, quantum dot cellular automata, DNA computing, optical computing, etc. Thus, it is important to

minimize parameters such as ancilla and garbage bits, quantum cost and delay in the design of reversible circuits.

The first contribution of this dissertation is the design of a new reversible gate namely the TR gate (Thapliyal-Ranganathan) which has the unique structure that makes it ideal for the realization of arithmetic circuits such as adders, subtractors and comparators, efficient in terms of the parameters such as ancilla and garbage bits, quantum cost and delay. The second contribution is the development of design methodologies and a synthesis framework to synthesize reversible data path

functional units, such as binary and BCD adders, subtractors, adder-subtractors and binary comparators. The objective behind the proposed design methodologies is to synthesize arithmetic and logic functional units optimizing key metrics such as ancilla inputs, garbage outputs, quantum cost and delay. A library of reversible gates such as the Fredkin gate, the Toffoli gate, the TR gate, etc. was developed by coding in Verilog for use during synthesis. The third contribution of this dissertation

is the set of methodologies for the design of reversible sequential circuits such as reversible latches, flip-flops and shift registers. The reversible designs of asynchronous set/reset D latch and the D flip-flop are attempted for the first time. It is shown that the designs are optimal in terms of number of garbage outputs while exploring the best possible values for quantum cost and delay.

The other important contributions of this dissertation are the applications of reversible logic as well as a special class of reversible logic called conservative reversible logic towards concurrent (online) and offline testing of single as well as multiple faults in traditional and reversible nanoscale VLSI circuits, based on emerging nanotechnologies such as QCA, quantum computing, etc. Nanoelectronic devices tend to have high permanent and transient faults and thus are susceptible to high

error rates. Specific contributions include (i) concurrently testable sequential circuits for molecular QCA based on reversible logic, (ii) concurrently testable QCA-based FPGA, (iii) design of self checking conservative logic gates for QCA, (iv) concurrent multiple error detection in emerging nanotechnologies using reversible logic, (v) two-vectors, all 0s and all 1s, testable reversible sequential circuits.