Graduation Year

2011

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree

Ph.D.

Degree Granting Department

Chemistry

Major Professor

Kirpal S. Bisht

Keywords

Ketamine, Mcmurry reaction, Regioselective acylation, Stilbene bisoxazines, Stilbenes, Stilbenoids

Abstract

Stilbenoids possess a wide range of biological properties such as, anticancer, antiplatelet aggregation, antiestrogenic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiatherogenic, etc. Owing to these therapeutic values, a great deal of attention attracted in the synthesis of derivatives of stilbenes. During the course of the study, G6 a novel stilbenoid was discovered, through high throughput screening, to be a potent inhibitor of mutated JAK2-V617F. The mutated JAK2 variant has been implicated in various myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has been targeted by therapeutics. Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of analogs of the stilbenoid G6 and N-substituted stilbenes bisoxazines by utilizing Mcmurry reaction and Mannich condensation methods. The main emphasis of this work is to develop novel stilbenoids as inhibitors of JAK2-V617F mutated Jak2 enzyme in Human erythroleukemia cells (HEL) since this mutation is discovered in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). Using Mcmurry reaction, five novel trans-hydroxystilbenes have been synthesized from carbonyl compounds. Subsequently using Mannich coupling with five secondary amines and five primary amines, 25 novel stilbenoids and 9 novel N-substituted stilbene bisoxazines have been synthesized. In HEL cell assay, 8 stilbenoid analogues have been identified as potent inhibitors of Jak2 enzyme.

Chapter 3 describes the modification of ketamine structurally for the synthesis of novel analogues to study for their agonist activity at GABAA receptors and antagonist activity at NMDA receptors. Ligand gated ion channels like GABAA and NMDA receptors are membrane-embedded proteins at synaptic cleft which controls intercommunication among neurons and plays an important role in motor control activity, learning. GABAA receptors are responsible for inhibitory action potentials while NMDA receptors are responsible for excitory action potentials. Ketamine, known as dissociative anesthetic, produces profound analgesia at low doses to a unique cardiovascular stimulation and a cataleptic state at higher doses with dose dependent side effects like vivid dreams, disruptions of cognitive functions. The main emphasis of this work is the synthesis of novel analogues of ketamine by transforming carbonyl group in ketamine to imine functionality with small to bulkier groups and to identify an analogue of ketamine which is highly potent in its activity at the both GABAA and NMDA receptors and improved clinical actions. Studies of analogues activity against GABAA subtypes α6Β2δ, α1Β2γ2 receptors and NMDA subtypes NR1/2A, NR1/2B, NR1/2D receptors have been described.

Chapter 4 describes the formal synthesis of (±)-Rolipram and the chemoenzymatic synthesis of -aryl--lactone, a Rolipram analogue. The key steps, Pd catalyzed arylation of diethylmalonate and the efficient use of selective acylation of 1, 3-diol entails the formal synthesis of (±)-Rolipram. The regioselective deacylation of Β-aryl-1, 4-diacetate by lipase Pseudomonas Sepacia entails the formation of Β-aryl-γ-lactone. The efficient use of various methods including halogen exchange, Heck arylation of diethylmaleate and lactonization for the synthesis of Β-aryl-γ-lactone have been discussed. The present work provides an efficient and general route to γ-lactones.

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