Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Joseph Vandello, Ph.D.


Counteroffer, Wage gap, Diversity, College students, Careers


The current study explores the effects of gender on salary negotiation behaviors and expectancies and the relationship between these variables and starting salary outcomes. College students from a variety of different majors were surveyed prior to and then approximately two to four months after graduation. Though there was no gender difference in final salary or difference between initial and final salary offer, men reported using more aggressive and active salary negotiation behaviors. The results also suggest that men may have felt more empowered in the salary negotiation context. They expected higher salaries than women did, anticipated less discomfort and believed themselves to be less emotional in the salary negotiation context. In addition, males and females both considered stereotypically masculine traits as more effective in the negotiation context than stereotypically feminine traits and this difference was even larger for women than it was for men. Despite the above findings, the absence of gender differences in starting salary outcomes may have been caused by the perception that salary was non-negotiable, as few participants in this study made counteroffers. Future studies are needed to expand the number of field studies on gender differences in salary negotiation and to examine the variables above using a more diverse sample.