Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Jeffrey Ryan, Ph.D.


Failed continental rift, Bimodal volcanic suite, Rare earth elements, Neoproterozoic, Iapetus ocean


The lower Mount Rogers Formation (LMRF) is described by Rankin (1993) as a sequence of intercalated metabasalts and volcanogenic sediments with minor metarhyolite. We have chosen to examine the sequence of the LMRF units exposed along Elk Garden Ridge, a high shoulder between the summits of Whitetop Mountain and Mount Rogers in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area in SW Virginia. This sequence represents an uplifted block of LMRF units enclosed by exposures of Whitetop and Wilburn metarhyolites. In the field, progressive lithologic changes can be observed walking up-section along Elk Garden ridge that are indicative of changes in lava compositions and eruptive environments. From the bottom of the section, massive basalts with distinctive 1-2 cm long swallowtail plagioclase phenocrysts grade into vesicular basalts, then into sheet flow basalts, followed by a thick sequence of aphyric and amygdaloidal pillow basalts.

Further up section, eruptive products transition into rhyolitic ignimbrites and ash and lapilli tuffs. Boulders of cobble conglomerates near the middle of the sequence and sedimentary layers in between individual sheet flows suggest short periods of relative eruptive quiescence. The only unit broken out in the LMRF by Rankin (1993), Fees Rhyolite, is not observed in the field area, suggesting local differences in topography, eruptive products and eruptive styles across the outcrop area during the deposition of these eruptive products. Petrographically, the rocks reflect the regional greenschist facies metamorphic conditions with chlorite and epidote as primary metamorphic minerals, and unakite-like zones of mineralization. Relict plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts persist, as do primary igneous textures and structures.

Compositionally, all of the rocks in the Elk Garden Ridge sequence are strongly enriched in alkali metals, with elevated Na2O and K2O contents, and high TiO2 in the basalts. Major and trace element systematics suggest that the chemical signatures of the metabasalts are primary controlled by shallow-level crystallization processes. The LMRF metabasalts share many compositional affinities with later (~570 Ma) rift-related basalts preserved in the Appalachians, suggesting that all of these lavas were formed by melting of a compositionally uniform mantle source, followed by shallow crystallization, despite being separated from one another by large stretches of time and space.