Title

Disclosure and self-efficacy among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: A comparison between older and younger adults

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

11-2015

Keywords

HIV infections --prevention & control, HIV infections--psychology, HIV infections--transmission, HIV seropositivity--psychology, HIV seropositivity--transmission, health knowledge attitudes practice, male homosexuality, longitudinal studies, theoretical models, randomized controlled trials, risk reduction behavior, risk-taking, self disclosure, sexual partners, truth disclosure

Abstract

Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in the US. HIV among older adults also continues to be an important public health problem. Age is associated with disclosure of HIV serostatus and self-efficacy for condom use. However, studies examining self-efficacy and disclosure among older MSM (age 50 and older) living with HIV are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between being 50 and older, and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices among HIV-positive MSM. Data were gathered from 340 participants at the baseline assessment of a longitudinal disclosure intervention study. Linear regression was used to determine the association between being older (age 50 and older) and disclosure behaviors, intentions and attitudes, and self-efficacy for condom use, disclosure, and negotiation for safer sex practices. After adjusting for time since diagnosis and number of sexual partners, MSM aged 50 and older scored lower in disclosure behavior (beta = -7.49; 95% CI: -14.8, -0.18) and in self-efficacy for negotiation of safer sex practices (beta = -0.80; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.04) compared to MSM 18-34 years. Intervention and prevention programs should endeavor to improve disclosure and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices among older HIV-positive MSM. More health care providers should initiate sexual health discussions, especially among older HIV-positive MSM populations, which may help to improve their disclosure behavior and self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex practices.